2015 | Month:August | Volume:2 | Issue:2 | Page:118-136

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in children

SECTION A: Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in children
Jyoti Kini

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While Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to be a disease of the elderly and the middle aged, currently there has been an upsurge in the incidence of T2DM in the adolescents and the young. Family history, maternal gestational diabetes, low birth weight have contributory role to play in the pathophysiology of T2DM. The pathophysiology underlying the development of alterations in glucose metabolism ranging from abnormal fasting glucose (AFG) to impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) is multifactorial. The early onset of diabetes in childhood or adolescence heralds a long disease interval with resultant escalation of the probability of development of co-morbidities and the entire range of macro- and microvascular complications.

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SECTION B: Clinical scenario of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in children
Mallikarjungowda S Patil

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a heterogeneous disorder, characterized by peripheral insulin resistance and failure of  beta  cells to keep up with increasing  insulin demand. T2DM children are usually obese, may present with mild symptoms of polyuria and polydypsia.
A systemic approach for treatment of T2DM should be implemented according to the natural course of the disease, including adding insulin when oral hypoglycemic agents failure occurs. Life style modification is an essential part of management. When lifestyle interventions fail to normalize blood glucose, oral hypoglycemic agents are introduced for management of persistent hyperglycemia.

SECTION C: Epidemiology and Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in children
Savindika Nawarathna ,Animesh Jain

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Type 2 diabetes mellitus was considered rare amongst children, but recently the incidence has increased worldwide with almost half of the newly diagnosed cases being children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is primarily characterized by insulin resistance detected at the level of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues with a failure of β-cell compensation and a relative insulin deficiency. A variety of risk factors like race, obesity, insulin resistance, family history, psychococial factors, birth weight, exposure to maternal DM and breastfeeding can influence the development of T2DM. Type 2 DM screening in the paediatric population should be clinically focused and take into account not only those risk factors identified in the American Diabetes Association guidelines, but also the clinical context, pubertal status, and the results of simple screening measures such as fasting glucose and triglycerides. More outcome-based research is required before general screening, to identify children and adolescents with pre-diabetes or insulin resistance can be recommended.

\nThe pathophysiology underlying the development of alterations in glucose metabolism ranging from abnormal fasting glucose (AFG) to impaired glucose intolerance (IGT) is multifactorial. The early onset of diabetes in childhood or adolescence heralds a long disease interval with resultant escalation of the probability of development of co-morbidities and the entire range of macro- and microvascular complications.\n





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